Education and Qualifications



At least a bachelor’s degree in accounting or a related field is required for most accountant and auditor job positions, and some employers prefer applicants with a master’s degree.

A degree:

  • Financial management
  • Financial advice
  • Insolvency and reconstructions
  • Management accounting
  • Taxation

Additional, you need to have development non-technical competencies to an Intermediate level (level 2) in all of the following areas:

  • Teamwork
  • Organizational skills
  • Research and evaluation
  • Decision making
  • Exercising ethical and professional behavior
  • Communication and interpersonal skills

ACCOUNTING has variously been defined as the keeping or preparation of the financial of an entity, the analysis verification and reporting of such records and “the principles and procedures of accounting”, it also refers to the job of being an accountant.ACCOUNTANCY refers to the occupation or profession of an accountant, particularly in British EnglishTOPICS
Accounting has several subfields or subject areas, including accounting, management accounting, auditing, taxation and accounting information systems.


Financial accounting focuses on the reporting of an organisation’s financial information to external user of the information, such as investors, potential investors and creditors. It calculates and records business transactions and prepares financial statements for the external users in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP). GAAP, in turn, arises from the wide agreement between accounting theory and practice, and change over time to meet the needs of decision-makers.

Financial accounting produces past-oriented reports-for example the financial statements prepared in 2006 reports on performance in 2005-on an annual or quarterly basis, generally about the organisation as a whole.
This branch of accounting is also studied as part of the board exams for qualifying as an actuary. It is interesting to note that these two professionals, accountants and actuaries, have created a culture of being archrivals.


Management accounting focuses on the measurement, analysis and reporting of information that can help managers in making decisions to fulfill the goals of an organisation. In management accounting, internal measures and reports are based on cost-benefit analysis, and are not required to follow the generally accepted accounting principle (GAAP). In 2014 CIMA created the Global Management Accounting Principles (GMAPs). The result of research from across 20 countries in five continents, the principles aim to guide best practice in the discipline.
Management accounting produces future-oriented reports-for example the budget for 2006 is prepared in 2005-and the time span of reports varies widely. Such reports may include both financial and non financial information, and may, for example, focus on specific products and departments.


Auditing is the verification of assertions made by others regarding a payoff, and in the context of accounting it is the unbiased examination and evaluation of the financial statements of an organisation.

An audit of financial statements aims to express or disclaim an opinion on the financial statements. The auditor expresses an opinion on the fairness with which the financial statements presents the financial position, results of operations, and cash flows of an entity, in accordance with the generally acceptable accounting principle (GAAP) and “in all material respects”. An auditor is also required to identity circumstances in which the generally acceptable accounting principles (GAAP) has not been consistently observed.

Accounting information system is a part of an organisation’s information system that focuses on processing accounting data.


Tax accounting in the United States concentrates on the preparation, analysis and presentation of tax payments and tax returns. The U.S. tax system requires the use of specialised accounting principles for tax purposes which can differ from the generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) for financial reporting. U.S. tax law covers four basic forms of business ownership: sole proprietorship, partnership, corporation, and limited liability company. Corporate and personal income are taxed at different rates, both varying according to income levels and including varying marginal rates (taxed on each additional dollar of income) and average rates (set as a percentage of overall income).


Professional accounting bodies include the American Institute of Certified Public Accountants (AICP) and the other 179 members of the International Federation of Accountants (IFAC), including CPA Australia, Association of Chartered Certified Accountants (ACCA) and Institute of Chartered Accountants in England and Wales (ICAEW). Professional bodies for subfields of the accounting professions also exist, for example the Chartered Institute of Management Accountants (CIMA). Many of these professional bodies offer education and training including qualification and administration for various accounting designations, such as certified public accountant and chartered accountant.


Accounting networks and associations
Depending on its size, a company may be legally required to have their financial statements audited by a qualified auditor, and audits are usually carried out by accounting firms.
Accounting firms grew in the United States and Europe in the late nineteenth and early twentieth century, and through several mergers there were large international accounting firms by the mid-twentieth century. Further large mergers in the late twentieth century led to the dominance by the auditing market by the Big Four accounting firms: Arthur Andersen, Deloitte, Ernst & Young, KPMG and Price water house Coopers.  T

he demise of Arthur Andersen following the Enron scandal reduced the Big Five to the Big Four.

Generally accepted accounting principles (GAAP) are accounting standards issued by national regulatory bodies. In addition, the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB) issues the International Financial Reporting Standards (IFRS) implemented by 147 countries. While standards for international audit and assurance, ethics, education, and public sector accounting are all set by independent standard settings boards supported by IFAC. The International Auditing and Assurance Standards Board sets international standards for auditing, assurance, and quality control; the International Ethics Standards Board for Accountants (IESBA) sets the internationally appropriate principles-based Code of Ethics for Professional Accounts the International Accounting Education Standards Board (IAESB) sets professional accounting education standards; International Public Sector Accounting Standards Board (IPSASB) sets accrual-based international public sector accounting standards.

Organisations in individual countries may issue accounting standards unique to the countries for example, in the United States the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issues the Statements of Financial Accounting Standards, which form the basis of US GAAP in accounting may also be required for, or may be used to fulfill the requirements for, membership to professional accounting bodies. A doctorate is required in order to pursue a career in accounting academia, for example to work as a university professor in accounting. The Doctor of Philosophy (PhD) and the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) are the most popular degree. The PhD is most common degree for those wishing to pursue a career in academia. While DBA programs generally focus on equipping business executives for business or public careers requiring research skills and qualifications.

Accounting research is research in the effects of economic events on the process of accounting, and the effects of reported information on economic events. It encompasses a broad range of research areas including financial accounting, management accounting, auditing and taxation.
Accounting research is carried out both by academic researchers and practicing accountants. Methodologies in academic accounting research can be classified into archival research, which examines “objective data collected from repositories”; experimental research, which examines data “the researcher gathered by administering treatments to subjects”; and analytical research, which is “based on the act of formally modeling theories or substantiating ideas in mathematical terms”. This classification is not exhaustive; other possible methodologies include the use of case studies, computer simulations and field research.

Many accounting practices have been simplified with the help of accounting computer-based software. An Enterprise resource planning (ERP) system is commonly used for a large organisation and it provides a comprehensive, centralized, integrated source of information that companies can use to manage all major business processes, from purchasing to manufacturing to human resources. Accounting information systems have reduced the cost of accumulating, storing, and reporting managerial accounting information and have made it possible to produce a more detailed account of all data that is entered into any given system.

Accounting ethics
The year 2001 witnessed a series of financial information frauds involving Enron, auditing firm Arthur Andersen, the telecommunications company WorldCom, Qwest and Sunbeam, among other well-known corporations. These problems highlighted the need to review the effectiveness of accounting standards, auditing regulations and corporate governance principles. In some cases, management manipulated the figures shown in financial report to indicate a better economic performance. In others, tax and regulatory incentives encouraged over-leveraging of companies and decisions to bear extraordinary and unjustified risk.

The Enron scandal deeply influenced the development of new regulations to improve the reliability of financial reporting, and increased public awareness about the importance of having accounting standards that show the financial reality of companies and the objectivity and independence of auditing firms.

In addition to being the largest bankruptcy reorganization in American history, the Enron scandal undoubtedly is the biggest audit failure. It involved a financial scandal of Enron Corporation and their auditors Arthur Andersen, which was revealed in late 2001. The scandal caused the dissolution of Arthur Andersen, which at the time was one of the five largest accounting firms in the world. After a series of revelations involving irregular accounting procedures conducted throughout the 1990s, Enron filed for Chapter 11 bankruptcy protection in December 2001.One consequence of these events was the passage of Sarbanes-Oxley Act in United States 2002, as a result of the first admission of fraudulent behavior made by Enron. The act significantly raises criminal penalties for securities fraud, for destroying, altering or fabricating records in federal investigations or any scheme or attempt to defraud shareholders.


Flexible, experience-based training in brief:
The AT designation is formal recognition of your practical accounting skills and experience. Choose from one of two pathways to become an AT and broaden your career options ATs may be able to work in financial roles including payroll, account management, budget preparation and more.

Build the Foundations
Accounting Technicians (ATS) prepare and mange financial accounts across different areas of finance and business.

Their skills are valued by originations that employ qualified ATs in roles such as account management, payroll, budget preparation or assistant finance manager.

Our flexible, detailed training program has learning options to suit different individuals.
Whether you’re just starting out in your accounting career or building on the experience you already have, you can earn the AT designation through practical, academic or on-the-job learning.

Pathways to Membership
You can apply for membership and start your journey through one of the following pathway:
Academic pathway: a formal academic qualification covering accounting and business management.


The Institute is empowered to accredit the accounting,finance,economics, banking etc subject either as a course or as a subject in any institution of higher learning in Africa orglobally.

Any interested institution or individual should forward application with application fee of $300 U.S dollars for evaluation.

Payment of accreditation certificate shall apply if application is successful.


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